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JUne 6, 2022 Wisconsin (/wɪˈskɒnsɪn/ (listen)) is a state in the upper Midwestern United States. Wisconsin is the 25th-largest state by total area and the 20th-most populous. It is bordered by Minnesota to the west, Iowa to the southwest, Illinois to the south, Lake Michigan to the east, Michigan to the northeast, and Lake Superior to the north.

Nickname(s): Badger State, America's Dairyland

The bulk of Wisconsin's population live in areas situated along the shores of Lake Michigan. The largest city, Milwaukee, anchors its largest metropolitan area, followed by Green Bay and Kenosha, the third- and fourth-most populated Wisconsin cities, respectively. The state capital, Madison, is currently the second-most populated and fastest growing city in the state.[12]Wisconsin is divided into 72 counties and as of the 2020 census had a population of nearly 5.9 million.[13] Wisconsin's geography is diverse, having been greatly impacted by glaciers during the Ice Agewith the exception of the Driftless Area. The Northern Highland and Western Upland along with a part of the Central Plain occupies the western part of the state, with lowlands stretching to the shore of Lake Michigan. Wisconsin is third to Ontario and Michigan in the length of its Great Lakes coastline. The northern portion of the state is home to the Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest. At the time of European contact the area was inhabited by Algonquian and Siouan nations, and today is home to eleven federally recognized tribes.[14] During the 19th and early 20th centuries, many European settlers entered the state, most of whom emigrated from Germanyand Scandinavia.[15][16] Wisconsin remains a center of German American and Scandinavian American culture,[17] particularly in respect to its cuisine, with foods such as bratwurst and kringle. Wisconsin is home to one UNESCO World Heritage Site, comprising two of the most significant buildings designed by Wisconsin-born architect Frank Lloyd Wright: his studio at Taliesinnear Spring Green and his Jacobs I House in Madison.[18] The state is one of the nation's leading dairy producers and is known as "America's Dairyland"; it is particularly famous for its cheese.[19][20] The state is also famous for its beer, particularly and historically in Milwaukee, most notably as the headquarters of the Miller Brewing Company. Wisconsin has some of the most permissive alcohol laws in the country and is well known for its drinking culture.[21][22] Its economy is dominated by manufacturing, healthcare, information technology, and agriculture; specifically dairy, cranberries and ginseng.[23]Tourism is also a major contributor to the state's economy.[24] The gross domestic product in 2020 was $348 billion.[25] Etymology The word Wisconsin originates from the name given to the Wisconsin River by one of the Algonquian-speaking Native American groups living in the region at the time of European contact.[26] French explorer Jacques Marquettewas the first European to reach the Wisconsin River, arriving in 1673 and calling the river Meskousing (likely ᒣᔅᑯᐤᓯᣙ meskowsin) in his journal.[27] Subsequent French writers changed the spelling from Meskousing to Ouisconsin, and over time this became the name for both the Wisconsin River and the surrounding lands. English speakers anglicized the spelling from Ouisconsin to Wisconsin when they began to arrive in large numbers during the early 19th century. The legislature of Wisconsin Territorymade the current spelling official in 1845.[28] The Algonquian word for Wisconsin and its original meaning have both grown obscure. While interpretations vary, most implicate the river and the red sandstone that lines its banks. One leading theory holds that the name originated from the Miami word Meskonsing, meaning "it lies red", a reference to the setting of the Wisconsin River as it flows through the reddish sandstone of the Wisconsin Dells.[29] Other theories include claims that the name originated from one of a variety of Ojibwa words meaning "red stone place", "where the waters gather", or "great rock".[30] History Main article: History of Wisconsin Early history Wisconsin in 1718, Guillaume de L'Isle map, with the approximate state area highlighted Wisconsin has been home to a wide variety of cultures over the past 14,000 years. The first people arrived around 10,000 BCE during the Wisconsin Glaciation. These early inhabitants, called Paleo-Indians, hunted now-extinct ice age animals such as the Boaz mastodon, a prehistoric mastodon skeleton unearthed along with spear points in southwest Wisconsin.[31] After the ice age ended around 8000 BCE, people in the subsequent Archaic period lived by hunting, fishing, and gathering food from wild plants. Agricultural societies emerged gradually over the Woodland period between 1000 BCE to 1000 CE. Toward the end of this period, Wisconsin was the heartland of the "Effigy Mound culture", which built thousands of animal-shaped mounds across the landscape.[32] Later, between 1000 and 1500 CE, the Mississippian and Oneota cultures built substantial settlements including the fortified village at Aztalan in southeast Wisconsin.[33] The Oneota may be the ancestors of the modern Ioway and Ho-Chunk nations who shared the Wisconsin region with the Menominee at the time of European contact.[34] Other Native American groups living in Wisconsin when Europeans first settled included the Ojibwa, Sauk, Fox, Kickapoo, and Pottawatomie, who migrated to Wisconsin from the east between 1500 and 1700.[35] European settlements Main articles: New France, Canada (New France), French and Indian War, Treaty of Paris (1763), Province of Quebec (1763–1791), and Indian Reserve (1763) Jean Nicolet, depicted in a 1910 painting by Frank Rohrbeck, was probably the first European to explore Wisconsin. The mural is located in the Brown County Courthouse in Green Bay. The first European to visit what became Wisconsin was probably the French explorer Jean Nicolet. He canoed west from Georgian Baythrough the Great Lakes in 1634, and it is traditionally assumed that he came ashore near Green Bay at Red Banks.[36] Pierre Radisson and Médard des Groseilliers visited Green Bay again in 1654–1666 and Chequamegon Bay in 1659–1660, where they traded for fur with local Native Americans.[37] In 1673, Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet became the first to record a journey on the Fox-Wisconsin Waterway all the way to the Mississippi River near Prairie du Chien.[38]Frenchmen like Nicholas Perrot continued to ply the fur trade across Wisconsin through the 17th and 18th centuries, but the French made no permanent settlements in Wisconsin before Great Britain won control of the region following the French and Indian War in 1763. Even so, French traders continued to work in the region after the war, and some, beginning with Charles de Langlade in 1764, settled in Wisconsin permanently, rather than returning to British-controlled Canada.[39] French-Canadian voyageurJoseph Roi built the Tank Cottage in Green Bay in 1776. Located in Heritage Hill State Historical Park, it is the oldest standing building from Wisconsin's early years and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.[40] The British gradually took over Wisconsin during the French and Indian War, taking control of Green Bay in 1761 and gaining control of all of Wisconsin in 1763. Like the French, the British were interested in little but the fur trade. One notable event in the fur trading industry in Wisconsin occurred in 1791, when two free African Americans set up a fur trading post among the Menominee at present day Marinette. The first permanent settlers, mostly French Canadians, some Anglo-New Englanders and a few African American freedmen, arrived in Wisconsin while it was under British control. Charles de Langlade is generally recognized as the first settler, establishing a trading post at Green Bay in 1745, and moving there permanently in 1764.[39] Settlement began at Prairie du Chien around 1781. The French residents at the trading post in what is now Green Bay, referred to the town as "La Baye". However, British fur traders referred to it as "Green Bay", because the water and the shore assumed green tints in early spring. The old French title was gradually dropped, and the British name of "Green Bay" eventually stuck. The region coming under British rule had virtually no adverse effect on the French residents as the British needed the cooperation of the French fur traders and the French fur traders needed the goodwill of the British. During the French occupation of the region licenses for fur trading had been issued scarcely and only to select groups of traders, whereas the British, in an effort to make as much money as possible from the region, issued licenses for fur trading freely, both to British and to French residents. The fur trade in what is now Wisconsin reached its height under British rule, and the first self-sustaining farms in the state were established as well. From 1763 to 1780, Green Bay was a prosperous community which produced its own foodstuff, built graceful cottages and held dances and festivities.[41] U.S. territory Main articles: American Revolutionary War, Treaty of Paris (1783), Northwest Ordinance, Northwest Territory, Indiana Territory, Illinois Territory, Michigan Territory, Organic act § List of organic acts, and Wisconsin Territory Wisconsin became a territorial possession of the United States in 1783 after the American Revolutionary War. In 1787, it became part of the Northwest Territory. As territorial boundaries subsequently developed, it was then part of Indiana Territory from 1800 to 1809, Illinois Territory from 1809 to 1818, and Michigan Territory from 1818 to 1836. However, the British remained in control until after the War of 1812, the outcome of which finally established an American presence in the area.[42] Under American control, the economy of the territory shifted from fur trading to lead mining. The prospect of easy mineral wealth drew immigrantsfrom throughout the U.S. and Europe to the lead deposits located at Mineral Point, Dodgeville, and nearby areas. Some miners found shelter in the holes they had dug, and earned the nickname "badgers", leading to Wisconsin's identity as the "Badger State".[43] The sudden influx of white miners prompted tension with the local Native American population. The Winnebago War of 1827 and the Black Hawk War of 1832 culminated in the forced removal of Native Americans from most parts of the state.[44] Following these conflicts, Wisconsin Territory was created by an act of the United States Congresson April 20, 1836. By fall of that year, the best prairie groves of the counties surrounding what is now Milwaukee were occupied by farmers from the New England states.[45] Statehood Main articles: Admission to the Union and List of U.S. states by date of admission to the Union The Erie Canal facilitated the travel of both Yankee settlers and European immigrants to Wisconsin Territory. Yankees from New England and upstate New York seized a dominant position in law and politics, enacting policies that marginalized the region's earlier Native American and French-Canadian residents.[46] Yankees also speculated in real estate, platted towns such as Racine, Beloit, Burlington, and Janesville, and established schools, civic institutions, and Congregationalist churches.[47][48][49] At the same time, many Germans, Irish, Norwegians, and other immigrants also settled in towns and farms across the territory, establishing Catholicand Lutheran institutions. The growing population allowed Wisconsin to gain statehood on May 29, 1848, as the 30th state. Between 1840 and 1850, Wisconsin's non-Indian population had swollen from 31,000 to 305,000. More than a third of residents (110,500) were foreign born, including 38,000 Germans, 28,000 British immigrants from England, Scotland, and Wales, and 21,000 Irish. Another third (103,000) were Yankees from New England and western New York state. Only about 63,000 residents in 1850 had been born in Wisconsin.[50] Nelson Dewey, the first governor of Wisconsin, was a Democrat. Dewey oversaw the transition from the territorial to the new state government.[51] He encouraged the development of the state's infrastructure, particularly the construction of new roads, railroads, canals, and harbors, as well as the improvement of the Foxand Wisconsin Rivers.[51] During his administration, the State Board of Public Workswas organized.[51] Dewey, an abolitionist, was the first of many Wisconsin governors to advocate against the spread of slavery into new states and territories.[51] Civil War Main article: Wisconsin in the American Civil War The Little White Schoolhousein Ripon, Wisconsin, held the nation's first meeting of the Republican Party. The Wisconsin 8th Volunteer Eagle Regimentwith Old Abe Politics in early Wisconsin were defined by the greater national debate over slavery. A free state from its foundation, Wisconsin became a center of northern abolitionism. The debate became especially intense in 1854 after Joshua Glover, a runaway slave from Missouri, was captured in Racine. Glover was taken into custody under the Federal Fugitive Slave Law, but a mob of abolitionists stormed the prison where Glover was held and helped him escape to Canada. In a trial stemming from the incident, the Wisconsin Supreme Court ultimately declared the Fugitive Slave Law unconstitutional.[52] The Republican Party, founded on March 20, 1854, by anti-slavery expansion activists in Ripon, Wisconsin, grew to dominate state politics in the aftermath of these events.[53] During the Civil War, around 91,000 troops from Wisconsin fought for the Union.[54] Economic progress Drawing of Industrial Milwaukee in 1882 Wisconsin's economy also diversified during the early years of statehood. While lead mining diminished, agriculture became a principal occupation in the southern half of the state. Railroads were built across the state to help transport grains to market, and industries like J.I. Case & Company in Racine were founded to build agricultural equipment. Wisconsin briefly became one of the nation's leading producers of wheat during the 1860s.[55] Meanwhile, the lumber industry dominated in the heavily forested northern sections of Wisconsin, and sawmills sprang up in cities like La Crosse, Eau Claire, and Wausau. These economic activities had dire environmental consequences. By the close of the 19th century, intensive agriculture had devastated soil fertility, and lumbering had deforested most of the state.[56] These conditions forced both wheat agriculture and the lumber industry into a precipitous decline. The Daniel E. Krause Stone Barn in Chase was built in 1903, as dairy farming spread across the state. Beginning in the 1890s, farmers in Wisconsin shifted from wheat to dairy production in order to make more sustainable and profitable use of their land. Many immigrants carried cheese-making traditions that, combined with the state's suitable geography and dairy research led by Stephen Babcock at the University of Wisconsin, helped the state build a reputation as "America's Dairyland".[57] Meanwhile, conservationists including Aldo Leopold helped re-establish the state's forests during the early 20th century,[58]paving the way for a more renewable lumber and paper milling industry as well as promoting recreational tourism in the northern woodlands. Manufacturing also boomed in Wisconsin during the early 20th century, driven by an immense immigrant workforce arriving from Europe. Industries in cities like Milwaukee ranged from brewing and food processing to heavy machine production and tool-making, leading Wisconsin to rank 8th among U.S. states in total product value by 1910.[59] 20th century Wisconsin Governor Robert La Follette addresses an assembly, 1905 The early 20th century was also notable for the emergence of progressive politics championed by Robert M. La Follette. Between 1901 and 1914, Progressive Republicans in Wisconsin created the nation's first comprehensive statewide primary election system,[60] the first effective workplace injury compensation law,[61] and the first state income tax,[62] making taxation proportional to actual earnings. The progressive Wisconsin Ideaalso promoted the statewide expansion of the University of Wisconsin through the UW-Extension system at this time.[63] Later, UW economics professors John R. Commons and Harold Groves helped Wisconsin create the first unemployment compensation program in the United States in 1932.[64] In the immediate aftermath of World War II, citizens of Wisconsin were divided over issues such as creation of the United Nations, support for the European recovery, and the growth of the Soviet Union's power. However, when Europe divided into Communist and capitalist camps and the Communist revolution in China succeeded in 1949, public opinion began to move towards support for the protection of democracy and capitalism against Communist expansion.[65] Wisconsin took part in several political extremes in the mid to late 20th century, ranging from the anti-communist crusades of Senator Joseph McCarthy in the 1950s to the radical antiwar protests at UW-Madison that culminated in the Sterling Hall bombing in August 1970. The state undertook welfare reform under Republican Governor Tommy Thompson during the 1990s.[66] The state's economy also underwent further transformations towards the close of the 20th century, as heavy industry and manufacturing declined in favor of a service economy based on medicine, education, agribusiness, and tourism. Two U.S. Navy battleships, BB-9 and BB-64, were named for the state. Wisconsin, from an altitude of 206 nautical miles (237 statute miles; 382 km) at 7:43:39 AM CDT on March 11, 2012 during Expedition 30 of the International Space Station. 21st century This section may lend undue weight to certain ideas, incidents, or controversies. Please help to create a more balanced presentation. Discuss and resolve this issue before removing this message. (October 2019)In 2011, Wisconsin became the focus of some controversy when newly elected governor Scott Walker proposed, passed, and enacted the 2011 Wisconsin Act 10, which made large changes in the areas of collective bargaining, compensation, retirement, health insurance, and sick leave of public sector employees, among other changes.[67] A series of major protests by union supporters took place that year in response to the changes, and Walker survived a recall election held the next year, becoming the first governor in United States history to do so.[68]Walker enacted other bills promoting conservative governance, such as a right-to-work law,[69] abortion restrictions,[70] and legislation removing certain gun controls.[71][72][73] Geography Main article: Geography of Wisconsin Wisconsin is divided into five geographic regions. The Driftless Area of southwestern Wisconsin is characterized by bluffs carved in sedimentary rock by water from melting Ice Age glaciers. Timms Hill is the highest natural point in Wisconsin at 1,951.5 ft (594.8 m); it is located in the Town of Hill, Price County. Wisconsin is bordered by the Montreal River; Lake Superior and Michigan to the north; by Lake Michigan to the east; by Illinois to the south; and by Iowa to the southwest and Minnesota to the northwest. A border dispute with Michigan was settled by two cases, both Wisconsin v. Michigan, in 1934 and 1935. The state's boundaries include the Mississippi River and St. Croix River in the west, and the Menominee River in the northeast. With its location between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River, Wisconsin is home to a wide variety of geographical features. The state is divided into five distinct regions. In the north, the Lake Superior Lowland occupies a belt of land along Lake Superior. Just to the south, the Northern Highland has massive mixed hardwood and coniferous forests including the 1,500,000 acres (6,100 km2) Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest, as well as thousands of glacial lakes, and the state's highest point, Timms Hill. In the middle of the state, the Central Plain has some unique sandstone formations like the Dells of the Wisconsin River in addition to rich farmland. The Eastern Ridges and Lowlandsregion in the southeast is home to many of Wisconsin's largest cities. The ridges include the Niagara Escarpment that stretches from New York, the Black River Escarpment and the Magnesian Escarpment.[74][75][76] In the southwest, the Western Upland is a rugged landscape with a mix of forest and farmland, including many bluffs on the Mississippi River. This region is part of the Driftless Area, which also includes portions of Iowa, Illinois, and Minnesota. This area was not covered by glaciersduring the most recent ice age, the Wisconsin Glaciation. Overall, 46% of Wisconsin's land area is covered by forest. Langlade County has a soil rarely found outside of the county called Antigo silt loam.[77] Wisconsin has sister-state relationships with Germany's Hesse, Japan's Chiba Prefecture, Mexico's Jalisco, China's Heilongjiang, and Nicaragua.[78] Climate Further information: Climate change in Wisconsin Köppen climate types of Wisconsin Most of Wisconsin is classified as warm-summer humid continental climate (Köppen Dfb), while southern and southwestern portions are classified as hot-summer humid continental climate (Köppen Dfa). The highest temperature ever recorded in the state was in the Wisconsin Dells, on July 13, 1936, where it reached 114 °F (46 °C). The lowest temperature ever recorded in Wisconsin was in the village of Couderay, where it reached −55 °F (−48 °C) on both February 2 and 4, 1996. Wisconsin also receives a large amount of regular snowfall averaging around 40 inches (100 cm) in the southern portions with up to 160 inches (410 cm) annually in the Lake Superior snowbelt each year.[79] Monthly normal high and low temperatures for selected Wisconsin cities [°F (°C)]CityJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec Green Bay25/10 (−4/−12)29/13 (−2/−11)40/23 (5/−5)55/35 (13/1)67/45 (19/7)76/55 (25/13)81/59 (27/15)79/58 (26/14)71/49 (22/10)58/38 (14/4)43/28 (6/−2)30/15 (−1/−9)Hurley19/0 (−7/−18)26/4 (−4/−16)36/16 (2/−9)49/29 (9/−2)65/41 (18/5)73/50 (23/10)76/56 (25/13)75/54 (24/12)65/46 (18/8)53/35 (12/2)36/22 (2/−6)24/8 (−5/−14)La Crosse26/6 (−3/−14)32/13 (0/−11)45/24 (7/−4)60/37 (16/3)72/49 (22/9)81/58 (27/14)85/63 (29/17)82/61 (28/16)74/52 (23/11)61/40 (16/4)44/27 (7/−3)30/14 (−1/−10)Madison27/11 (−3/−12)32/15 (0/−9)44/25 (7/−4)58/36 (14/2)69/46 (21/8)79/56 (26/13)82/61 (28/16)80/59 (27/15)73/50 (23/10)60/39 (15/3)45/28 (7/−2)31/16 (−1/−9)Milwaukee29/16 (−2/−9)33/19 (0/−7)42/28 (6/−2)54/37 (12/3)65/47 (18/8)75/57 (24/14)80/64 (27/18)79/63 (26/17)71/55 (22/13)59/43 (15/6)46/32 (8/0)33/20 (0/−7)Superior[80]21/2 (−6/−17)26/6 (−3/−14)35/17 (2/−8)46/29 (8/-2)56/38 (13/3)66/47 (19/8)75/56 (24/13)74/57 (23/14)65/47 (18/8)52/36 (11/2)38/23 (3/−5)25/9 (−4/−13)Climate data for Wisconsin (normals 1981-2010)MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYearRecord high °F (°C)66 (19)69 (21)89 (32)97 (36)109 (43)106 (41)114 (46)108 (42)104 (40)95 (35)84 (29)70 (21)114 (46)Average high °F (°C)23.9 (−4.5)29.2 (−1.6)40.6 (4.8)55.5 (13.1)67.3 (19.6)76.3 (24.6)80.4 (26.9)78.2 (25.7)69.8 (21.0)56.9 (13.8)41.2 (5.1)27.5 (−2.5)52.9 (11.6)Daily mean °F (°C)15.0 (−9.4)19.6 (−6.9)30.5 (−0.8)44.0 (6.7)55.3 (12.9)64.7 (18.2)69.1 (20.6)67.1 (19.5)58.7 (14.8)46.5 (8.1)33.1 (0.6)19.4 (−7.0)43.6 (6.4)Average low °F (°C)3.7 (−15.7)6.3 (−14.3)18.3 (−7.6)31.6 (−0.2)42.6 (5.9)52.4 (11.3)57.2 (14.0)55.0 (12.8)47.1 (8.4)36.2 (2.3)23.7 (−4.6)10.6 (−11.9)31.8 (−0.1)Record low °F (°C)−54 (−48)−55 (−48)−48 (−44)−20 (−29)7 (−14)20 (−7)27 (−3)22 (−6)10 (−12)−7 (−22)−34 (−37)−52 (−47)−55 (−48)Average precipitationinches (mm)1.15 (29)1.03 (26)1.80 (46)2.63 (67)3.54 (90)4.17 (106)3.79 (96)3.78 (96)3.75 (95)2.38 (60)2.00 (51)1.27 (32)31.29 (794)Average snowfall inches (cm)11.4 (29)9.5 (24)8.7 (22)3.2 (8.1)0.4 (1.0)0.0 (0.0)0.0 (0.0)0.0 (0.0)0.0 (0.0)0.8 (2.0)4.9 (12)10.2 (26)48.7 (124)Source: "Wisconsin State Climatology Office". Demographics Population Historical populationCensusPop.%±18201,444—18303,635151.7%184030,945751.3%1850305,391886.9%1860775,881154.1%18701,054,67035.9%18801,315,45724.7%18901,693,33028.7%19002,069,04222.2%19102,333,86012.8%19202,632,06712.8%19302,939,00611.7%19403,137,5876.8%19503,434,5759.5%19603,951,77715.1%19704,417,73111.8%19804,705,7676.5%19904,891,7694.0%20005,363,6759.6%20105,686,9866.0%20205,893,7183.6%Source: 1910–2020[81]Wisconsin 2010 Population Density Map Racial/Ethnic Makeup of Wisconsin treating Hispanics as a Separate Category (2017)[82] White Non-Hispanic (81.21%) Black Non-Hispanic (6.25%) Native American Non-Hispanic (0.77%) Asian Non-Hispanic (2.74%) Pacific Islander Non-Hispanic (0.06%) Other Non-Hispanic (0.16%) Two or more races Non-Hispanic (1.95%) Hispanic Any Race (6.86%) The United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of Wisconsin was 5,822,434 on July 1, 2019, a 2.4% increase since the 2010 United States census.[83] This includes a natural increase since the last census of 150,659 people (i.e., 614,771 births minus 464,112 deaths) and an decrease due to net migration of 12,755 people. Immigration resulted in a net increase of 59,251 people, and migration from within the U.S. resulted in a net decrease of 72,006 people.[84] Ethnic composition as of the 2020 censusRace and Ethnicity[85]AloneTotalWhite (non-Hispanic)78.6% 81.9% Hispanic or Latino[a]—7.6% African American (non-Hispanic)6.2% 7.3% Asian3.0% 3.6% Native American0.8% 2.0% Pacific Islander0.03% 0.1% Other0.3% 1.1% Wisconsin historical population by raceRacial composition1990[86]2000[87]2010[88]White92.2%88.9%86.2%Black5.0%5.7%6.3%Asian1.1%1.7%2.3%Native0.8%0.9%1.0%Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander–––Other race0.9%1.6%2.4%Two or more races–1.3%1.8%According to the 2016 American Community Survey, 6.5% of Wisconsin's population were of Hispanic or Latino origin (of any race): Mexican(4.7%), Puerto Rican (0.9%), Cuban (0.1%), and other Hispanic or Latino origin (0.7%).[89] The five largest ancestry groups were: German(40.5%), Irish (10.8%), Polish (8.8%), Norwegian(7.7%), and English (5.7%).[90] German is the most common ancestry in every county in the state, except Menominee, Trempealeau, and Vernon.[91] Wisconsin has the highest percentage of residents of Polish ancestry of any state.[92] Since its founding, Wisconsin has been ethnically heterogeneous. Following the period of French fur traders, the next wave of settlers were miners, many of whom were Cornish, who settled the southwestern area of the state. The next wave was dominated by "Yankees", migrants of English descent from New England and upstate New York; in the early years of statehood, they dominated the state's heavy industry, finance, politics, and education. Between 1850 and 1900, the immigrants were mostly Germans, Scandinavians (the largest group being Norwegian), Irish, and Poles. In the 20th century, a number of African Americans and Mexicanssettled in Milwaukee; and after the end of the Vietnam War came an influx of Hmongs. The various ethnic groups settled in different areas of the state. Although German immigrants settled throughout the state, the largest concentration was in Milwaukee. Norwegian immigrants settled in lumbering and farming areas in the north and west. Irish, Italian, and Polish immigrants settled primarily in urban areas.[93] Menominee County is the only county in the eastern United States with a Native American majority. African Americans came to Milwaukee, especially from 1940 on. 86% of Wisconsin's African-American population live in four cities: Milwaukee, Racine, Beloit, Kenosha, with Milwaukee home to nearly three-fourths of the state's black Americans. In the Great Lakes region, only Detroit and Cleveland have a higher percentage of African-American residents.[citation needed] 33% of Wisconsin's Asian population is Hmong, with significant communities in Milwaukee, Wausau, Green Bay, Sheboygan, Appleton, Madison, La Crosse, Eau Claire, Oshkosh, and Manitowoc.[94] Of the residents of Wisconsin, 71.7% were born in Wisconsin, 23.0% were born in a different US state, 0.7% were born in Puerto Rico, U.S. Island areas, or born abroad to American parent(s), and 4.6% were foreign born.[95] Birth dataNote: Births in table add to over 100%, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number. Live births by single race or ethnicity of motherRace2013[96]2014[97]2015[98]2016[99]2017[100]2018[101]2019[102]2020[103]White:55,485 (83.2%)55,520 (82.7%)55,350 (82.6%)...............> non-Hispanic White49,357 (74.0%)49,440 (73.6%)49,024 (73.1%)47,994 (72.0%)46,309 (71.3%)45,654 (71.2%)44,784 (70.8%)42,715 (70.5%)Black6,956 (10.4%)7,328 (10.9%)7,386 (11.0%)6,569 (9.9%)6,864 (10.6%)6,622 (10.3%)6,859 (10.8%)6,429 (10.6%)Asian3,197 (4.8%)3,333 (5.0%)3,276 (4.9%)3,220 (4.8%)3,017 (4.6%)3,155 (4.9%)2,942 (4.6%)2,870 (4.7%)American Indian1,011 (1.5%)980 (1.5%)1,029 (1.5%)689 (1.0%)745 (1.1%)707 (1.1%)664 (1.0%)573 (0.9%)Hispanic(of any race)6,398(9.6%)6,375(9.5%)6,604(9.9%)6,504(9.8%)6,368(9.8%)6,365(9.9%)6,463(10.2%)6,438(10.6%)Total Wisconsin66,649(100%)67,161(100%)67,041(100%)66,615(100%)64,975(100%)64,098(100%)63,270(100%)60,594(100%)

  • Since 2016, data for births of White Hispanicorigin are not collected, but included in one Hispanic group; persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.

Religion Christianity is the predominant religion of Wisconsin. As of 2008, the three largest denominational groups in Wisconsin were Catholic, Evangelical Protestant, and Mainline Protestant.[106] As of 2010, the Catholic Church had the highest number of adherents in Wisconsin (at 1,425,523), followed by the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America with 414,326 members, and the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod with 223,279 adherents.[107] The Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod, the synod with the fourth highest numbers of adherents in Wisconsin, has their headquarters in Waukesha, Wisconsin.

Crime Main article: Crime in Wisconsin Statewide FBI Crime statistics for 2009 include 144 murders/non-negligent manslaughter; 1,108 rapes; 4,850 robberies; 8,431 aggravated assaults; and 147,486 property crimes.[109]Wisconsin also publishes its own statistics through the Office of Justice Assistance. The OJA reported 14,603 violent crimes in 2009, with a clearance rate (% solved) of 50%. The OJA reported 4,633 sexual assaults in 2009, with an overall clearance rate for sexual assaults of 57%. Economy In 2019 Wisconsin's gross state product was $349.416 billion, making it 21st among U.S. states. The economy of Wisconsin is driven by manufacturing, agriculture, and health care. The state's economic output from manufacturing was $48.9 billion in 2008, making it the tenth largest among states in manufacturing gross domestic product. Manufacturing accounts for about 20% of the state's gross domestic product, a proportion that is third among all states. The per capita personal income was $35,239 in 2008. In March 2017, the state's unemployment rate was 3.4% (seasonally adjusted).

In quarter four of 2011, the largest employers in Wisconsin were:

  1. Wal-Mart

  2. University of Wisconsin–Madison

  3. Milwaukee Public Schools

  4. U.S. Postal Service

  5. Wisconsin Department of Corrections

  6. Menards

  7. Marshfield Clinic

  8. Wisconsin Department of Veterans Affairs

  9. Target Corporation, and

  10. City of Milwaukee.

Agriculture Wisconsin produces about a quarter of America's cheese, leading the nation in cheese production.[132][133] It is second in milk production, after California,[134] and third in per-capita milk production, behind California and Vermont.[135]Wisconsin is second in butter production, producing about one-quarter of the nation's butter.[136] The state ranks first nationally in the production of corn for silage, cranberries[137]ginseng,[138] and snap beans for processing. It grows more than half the national crop of cranberries.[137] and 97% of the nation's ginseng.[138] Wisconsin is also a leading producer of oats, potatoes, carrots, tart cherries, maple syrup, and sweet corn for processing. The significance of the state's agricultural production is exemplified by the depiction of a Holstein cow, an ear of corn, and a wheel of cheese on Wisconsin's state quarter design.[139] The state annually selects an "Alice in Dairyland" to promote the state's agricultural products around the world.[140] A large part of the state's manufacturing sector includes commercial food processing, including well-known brands such as Oscar Mayer, Tombstone frozen pizza, Johnsonville brats, and Usinger's sausage. Kraft Foods alone employs more than 5,000 people in the state. Milwaukee is a major producer of beer and was formerly headquarters for Miller Brewing Company—the nation's second-largest brewer—until it merged with Coors. Formerly, Schlitz, Blatz, and Pabst were cornerstone breweries in Milwaukee. Manufacturing

Wisconsin is home to a very large and diversified manufacturing economy, with special focus on transportation and capital equipment. Major Wisconsin companies in these categories include the Kohler Company; Mercury Marine; Rockwell Automation; Johnson Controls; John Deere; Briggs & Stratton; Milwaukee Electric Tool Company; Miller Electric; Caterpillar Inc.; Joy Global; Oshkosh Corporation; Harley-Davidson; Case IH; S. C. Johnson & Son; Ashley Furniture; Ariens; and Evinrude Outboard Motors. Consumer goods Wisconsin is a major producer of paper, packaging, and other consumer goods. Major consumer products companies based in the state include SC Johnson & Co., and Diversey, Inc. Wisconsin also ranks first nationwide in the production of paper products; the lower Fox River from Lake Winnebago to Green Bay has 24 paper mills along its 39 miles (63 km) stretch. The development and manufacture of health care devices and software is a growing sector of the state's economy, with key players such as GE Healthcare, Epic Systems, and TomoTherapy. Tourism Further information: Economy of Door County, Wisconsin State welcome sign Tourism is a major industry in Wisconsin—the state's third largest, according to the Department of Tourism. Tourist destinations such as the House on the Rock near Spring Green, Circus World Museum in Baraboo, and The Dells of the Wisconsin River draw thousands of visitors annually, and festivals such as Summerfest and the EAA Oshkosh Airshow draw international attention, along with hundreds of thousands of visitors.[142] Given the large number of lakes and rivers in the state, water recreation is very popular. In the North Country, what had been an industrial area focused on timber has largely been transformed into a vacation destination. Popular interest in the environment and environmentalism, added to traditional interests in hunting and fishing, has attracted a large urban audience within driving range.[143] The distinctive Door Peninsula, which extends off the eastern coast of the state, contains one of the state's tourist destinations, Door County. Door County is a popular destination for boaters because of the large number of natural harbors, bays, and boat launches on both the Green Bay and Lake Michigan sides of the peninsula that forms the county. The area draws more than two million visitors yearly[144] to its quaint villages, seasonal cherry picking, and fish boils.[145] Film industry On January 1, 2008, a new tax incentive for the film industry came into effect. The first major production to take advantage was Michael Mann's Public Enemies. While the producers spent $18 million on the film, it was reported that most of it went to out-of-state workers and for out-of-state services; Wisconsin taxpayers had provided $4.6 million in subsidies, and derived only $5 million in revenues from the film's making.


Wisconsin has no production of oil, gas, or coal.[147] Its in-state electrical generation is mostly from coal. Other important electricity sources are natural gas and nuclear.[147] The state has a mandate that ten percent of its electrical energy come from renewable sources by the end of 2015.[148] This goal has been met, but not with in-state sources. As of 2014, a third of that ten percent comes from out of state sources, mostly wind generated electricity from Minnesota and Iowa. The state has agnostic policies for developing wind power in state. T Culture Residents of Wisconsin are referred to as Wisconsinites. The traditional prominence of references to dairy farming and cheesemaking in Wisconsin's rural economy (the state's license plates have read "America's Dairyland" since 1940)[159] have led to the nickname (sometimes used pejoratively among non-residents) of "cheeseheads", and to the creation of "cheesehead hats" made of yellow foam in the shape of a wedge of cheese. Numerous ethnic festivals are held throughout Wisconsin to celebrate the heritage of its citizens. Such festivals include Summerfest, Oktoberfest, Polish Fest, Festa Italiana, Irish Fest, Bastille Days, Syttende Mai (Norwegian Constitution Day), Brat(wurst) Days in Sheboygan, Polka Days, Cheese Days in Monroeand Mequon, African World Festival, Indian Summer, Arab Fest, Wisconsin Highland Games, and many others.[160]


The Milwaukee Art Museum, with its brise soleildesigned by Santiago Calatrava, is known for its interesting architecture. Monona Terrace in Madison, a convention center designed by Taliesin architect Anthony Puttnam, is based on a 1930s design by Wisconsin native Frank Lloyd Wright. Wright's home and studio in the 20th century was at Taliesin, south of Spring Green. Decades after Wright's death, Taliesin remains an architectural office and school for his followers.

With the immigration of northern Europeans into Wisconsin and the upper Midwest, they brought the techniques of building Log homes with them.

Alcohol culture

Drinking has long been considered a significant part of Wisconsin culture, and the state ranks at or near the top of national measures of per-capita alcohol consumption, consumption of alcohol per state, and proportion of drinkers. Consumption per-capita per-event, however, ranks low among the nation; number of events (number of times alcohol is involved) is significantly higher or highest, but consumption at each event smaller, marking Wisconsin's consumption as frequent and moderate. Factors such as cultural identification with the state's heritage of German immigration, the long-standing presence of major breweries in Milwaukee, and a cold climate are often associated with the prevalence of drinking in Wisconsin.

In Wisconsin, the legal drinking age is 21, except when accompanied by a parent, guardian, or spouse who is at least 21 years old. Age requirements are waived for possessing alcohol when employed by a brewer, brewpub, beer and/or liquor wholesaler, or producer of alcohol fuel. The minimum legal age to purchase alcohol is 21, with no exceptions. The Absolute Sobriety law states that any person not of legal drinking age (currently 21) may not drive after consuming alcohol.

On September 30, 2003, the state legislature, reluctant to lower a DUI offense from BAC 0.10 to 0.08, did so only as a result of federal government pressure. The Wisconsin Tavern League opposes raising the alcoholic beverage tax. The Milwaukee Journal Sentinel series "Wasted in Wisconsin" examined this situation.


With its location[clarification needed] between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River, Wisconsin is home to a wide variety of geographical features. The state can generally be divided into five distinct regions—Lake Superior Lowland, Northern Highland, Central Plain, Western Upland, and Eastern Ridges & Lowlands. Lawrence Martin created this schema for dividing the state into geographic regions. The different regions are defined by the differing effects of glaciers during the Wisconsin glaciation.

Timms Hill is the highest natural point in Wisconsin at 1,951.5 ft (594.8 m); it is located in the town of Hill, Price County.

In the north, the Lake Superior Lowland occupies a belt of land along Lake Superior. The region is a flat plain, gently sloping downward to Lake Superior. Much of the area is forested—dominated by aspen and birch trees. The region also includes the Apostle Islands National Lakeshore. In the north-central part of the state, the Northern Highland has massive mixed hardwood and coniferous forests including the 1,500,000-acre (6,100 km2)

Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest, as well as thousands of glacial lakes. The terrain is generally higher than the rest of the state, with frequent hills, and includes the state's highest point, Timms Hill.

In the middle of the state, the Central Plain has many unique sandstone formations like the Dells of the Wisconsin River, in addition to rich farmland. The region is generally a flat sandy plain, much of which was covered by Glacial Lake Wisconsin. In the southwest, the Western Upland is a rugged landscape with a mix of forest and farmland, including many bluffs on the Mississippi River. The region is defined by its hilly irregular terrain, including all the Baraboo Range. The Western Upland is part of the Driftless Area, which also includes portions of Iowa, Illinois, and Minnesota. This area was not covered by glaciers during the most recent ice age, the Wisconsin Glaciation. This area contains many of the caves in Wisconsin, including the Natural Landmark Cave of the Mounds. Langlade County has a soil rarely found outside of the county called Antigo silt loam.

The Eastern Ridges and Lowlands region, in the southeast, is home to many of the state's largest cities. The region is located west of Lake Michigan, and is primarily a plain, sloping down to the lake. The ridges include the Niagara Escarpment, the Black River Escarpment, and the Magnesian Escarpment.[25][26]

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